ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology for transmitting digital information at high bandwidths on existing phone lines. Unlike regular dialup phone service, ADSL provides a continously-available connection. ADSL is asymmetric in that it uses most of the channel to transmit downstream to the user and only a small part to receive information from the user. ADSL simultaneously accommodates analog (voice) information on the same line. ADSL is generally offered at downstream data rates from 512 Kbps to about 6 Mbps.
is a procedure or formula for solving problems
Analog refers to electronic transmission accomplished by adding signals of varying frequency or amplitude to carrier waves of a given frequency of alternating electromagnetic current. Broadcast and phone transmission have conventionally used analog technology. A modem is used to convert analog to digital information to and from your computer.
ASP Application Service Provider
In lieu of purchasing software, servers, computers and hiring IT staff, companies can rent some or all of their resources from a service provider - an ASP. Software applications such as resource planning, personnel, accounts and customer service applications can be rented. The major factor is that these services are provided via the Internet.
Refers to processes that proceed independently of each other until one process needs to "interrupt" the other process with a request. Using the client- server model, the server handles many asynchronous requests from its many clients. The client is often able to proceed with other work or must wait on the service requested from the server.
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
A dedicated-connection switching technology that organizes digital data into 53-byte cell units and transmits them over a physical medium using digital signal technology. Individually, a cell is processed asynchronously relative to other related cells and is queued before being multiplexed over the transmission path. Because ATM is designed to be easily implemented by hardware (rather than software), faster processing and switching speeds are possible. The prespecified bit rates are either 155.520 Mbps or 622.080 Mbps. Speeds on ATM networks can reach 10 Gbps.
Determines a user's identity, as well as determining what a user is authorized to access, eg a financial database or a support knowledgebase. The most common form of authentication is user name and password, although this also provides the lowest level of security. VPNs use digital certificates and digital signatures to more accurately identify the user.
Broadband Access Server. A device that provides connectivity between customer-provisioned DSL services and Network Access Provididers; ie it is the interface between Network Access Providers and Network Service Providers.
Cable and Cable Modem
Cable allows receiving data at about 1.5 Mbps. This data rate far exceeds that of the prevalent 28.8 and 56 Kbps telephone modems and the up to 128 Kbps of ISDN and is about the data rate available to subscribers of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) telephone service.
A cable modem has two connections: one to the cable wall outlet and the other to a PC or to a set-top box for a TV set. Although a cable modem does modulate between analog and digital signals, it is a much more complex device than a telephone modem. It can be an external device or it can be integrated within a computer or set-top box. Typically, the cable modem attaches to a standard 10Base-T Ethernet card in the computer. In addition to the faster data rate, an advantage of cable over telephone Internet access is that it is a continuous connection.
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
A method of security on PPP links, where to establish a link peers must exchange a password or plain text "secret
Central Office (head office in a multi-site organisation)
Customer Premises Equipment; equipment that is installed in the customer premises, usually by a service provider, to connect to a specific service.
A process associated with scrambling plaintext (ordinary text, or cleartext) into ciphertext (a process called encryption), then back again (known as decryption). Cryptography concerns itself with four objectives:
1) Confidentiality (the information cannot be understood by anyone for whom it was unintended)
2) Integrity (the information cannot be altered in storage or transit between sender and intended receiver without the alteration being detected)
3) Non-repudiation (the creator/sender of the information cannot deny at a later stage his or her intentions in the creation or transmission of the information)
4) Authentication (the sender and receiver can confirm each other’s identity and the origin/destination of the information) Procedures and protocols that meet some or all of the above criteria are known as cryptosystems.
Direct Connection Services is a feature set that is pre-installed into ePipe units fitted with serial ports. DCS provides application-level control over ePipe's serial ports from programs running on Windows NT/2000 and UNIX systems. DCS also allows faxing from the desktop, direct-dial access for mobile workers and network printing. An activation key must be purchased from ePipe Pty Ltd to activate this feature.
A digital certificate is an electronic means of establishing your credentials when doing business or other transactions on the Web. It is issued by a certification authority (CA). It contains your name, a serial number, expiration dates, a copy of the certificate holder's public key (used for encrypting and decrypting messages and digital signatures), and the digital signature of the certificate-issuing authority so that a recipient can verify that the certificate is real. Some digital certificates conform to a standard, X.509. Digital certificates can be kept in registries so that authenticated users can look up other users' public keys.
DES (Data Encryption Standard)/ Triple DES
Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a widely-used method of data encryption using a private (secret) key that was judged so difficult to break by the U.S. government that it was restricted for exportation to other countries. There are 72,000,000,000,000,000 (72 quadrillion) or more possible encryption keys that can be used. For each given message, the key is chosen at random from among this enormous number of keys. Like other private key cryptographic methods, both the sender and the receiver must know and use the same private key. DES applies a 56-bit key to each 64-bit block of data. The process can run in several modes and involves 16 rounds or operations. Although this is considered "strong" encryption, many companies use "triple DES", which applies three keys in succession.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
A technology for enabling high speed information transfer to end users over ordinary copper telephone lines. xDSL refers to different variations of DSL, such as ADSL, HDSL, iDSL and RADSL. DSL offers data download rates up to 6 Mbps, dependant on the variant supplied and distance from the nearest DSL service provider's exchange. Distance limitations are generally around the 4 mile mark and apply to the actual cable length from the exchange to the end user premises.
DSL Multiplexer; equipment that is installed in carrier exchanges that delivers DSL services to subscribers.
Where data is inserted into a different kind of packet so the original packet is hidden. It incorporates aspects of encryption.
Prevents any non-authorized party from reading or changing data. The level of protection provided by encryption is determined by an encryption algorithm. In a brute-force attack, the strength is measured by the number of possible keys and the key size. For example, a Triple-Data Encryption Standard system (3 DES) uses 112-bit or 168-bit keys and, based on currently available processing power, is virtually immune to brute-force attacks. Business to Business VPNs (Extranets) share sensitive data with multiple organizations, so demand the highest level of security. This requires public key encryption and/or secure key exchange, both of which are designed to eliminate the risk of the key becoming known to an unauthorized party.
End to End Bonding (E2B)
E2B establishes a peer-to-peer relationship between the ePipe gateways controlling the multiple Internet connections at each site. It creates an aggregate tunnel (based on a bundle of all the Internet connections) through the Internet between systems needing to communicate. E2B controls bundling, and hence bandwidth, at the user sites and can determine the number of connections that a peer has.
Ethernet is the most widely installed local area network technology. The most commonly installed Ethernet systems are called 10BASE-T, providing transmission speeds up to 10 Mbps. Fast Ethernet LANs, 100BASE-T, provide transmission speeds up to 100 Mbps.
provides limited external access to certain resources on an organization's corporate network.
A firewall is a set of related programs, located at a network gateway server, that protects the resources of a private network from users from other networks. Basically, a firewall, working closely with a router program, filters all network packets to determine whether to forward them toward their destination. A firewall is often installed away from the rest of the network so that no incoming request can get directly at private network resources. There are a number of firewall screening methods. A simple one is to screen requests to make sure they come from acceptable (previously identified) domain names and IP addresses. For mobile users, firewalls allow remote access in to the private network by the use of secure logon procedures and authentication certificates.
Frame relay is a telecommunication service designed for cost-efficient data transmission for intermittent traffic between local area networks (LANs) and between end-points in a wide area network (WAN). Frame relay is based on the older X.25 packet-switching technology which was designed for transmitting analog data such as voice conversations. Unlike X.25 which was designed for analog signals, frame relay is a fast-packet technology, which means that the protocol does not attempt to correct errors. When an error is detected in a frame, it is simply "dropped." (thrown away). The end points are responsible for detecting and retransmitting dropped frames.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is the body that defines standard Internet operating protocols such as TCP/IP
Intelligent Internet Bonding (I2B)
I2B operates over standard dial-up connections and can bond 2 to 8 connections transparently into a wider pipe. I2B enables faster Web browsing and more simultaneous file downloads.
Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
To properly establish a third party's identity, Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and Public Key Encryption are often used. This involves the use of public and private keys to sign packets and unlock encryption algorithms. IKE also supports automatic key refresh, which further improves security.
Internet Protocol (IP)
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)
Internet Service Provider
The protocol, or method, used in communicating data from one computer to another across the Internet. It is simply a delivery method. Each computer on the network, both private and public, is allocated a unique address (an IP number) in much the same manner as an address written on an envelope to identify the intended recipient of conventional mail. IP forwards each data packet based on the destination address (the IP number); individual packets may be routed differently.
Inverse Multiplexing. Defines all forms of bonding or bundling two or more physical connections between two locations to create a single, faster virtual circuit.
Integrated Services Digital Network is a service offered by most telephone carriers for the transmission of voice and data.
Local Area Network (LAN)
LANs are typically high speed networks that connect computers, printers and other network devices together.
Mulitlink Frame Relay; defined by FRF.15 as End to End Multilink Frame Relay. ML-FR allows Frame Relay CPE to use multiple virtual circuits to transport a single stream of sequenced frames. This provides both additional bandwidth and increased transport reliablity . ML-FR uses the fragmentation header defined in FRF.12 and adds a 12-bit sequence number to all frames to allow the receiving CPE to resequence the frames. This service is transparent to the network but is limited to Frame Relay networks.
Multilink IP, developed by ePipe, which allows the bundling of two or more physical data connections between two locations without imposing any restrictions on the underlying infrastructure. ML-IP supports any IP-based customer network and does not require service provider involvement or investment. It is a “layer 3” method of aggregating IP links without the need for technology swap outs, allowing bandwidth to be scaled incrementally. Furthermore, ML-IP implements IP link directed routing. This manages the transfer of independent packets across an arbitrary number of paths, between multiple sites. ML-IP operates across any provider network that supports IP access links (Internet, T3/T1, F-R, ATM).
A modem converts digital signals from a computer or other digital device to analog signals (modulates) for transmission over PSTN lines. It converts incoming analog signals back to digital signals (demodulates) for the receiving computer or other digital device.
Multilink PPP (ML-PPP)
A standard method of splitting and recombining datagrams across multiple logical data links to provide scalable bandwidth. Designed for direct connections, ML-PPP has major deficiencies when used to connect two sites through the Internet to create a scalable VPN connection.
Network Access Provider (NAP)
Typically the telecommunications carrier who delivers data and voice communications services to customers. The NAP owns/operates the DSLAM and the transport network.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows computers on a private network to access the Internet without requiring their own global (public) Internet address. NAT modifies outgoing network packets so that the return address is a valid Internet host (usually the address of the ePipe itself). Return (incoming) packets have their destination address changed back, and are relayed to the client host, thereby protecting the private addresses from public view.
Network Service Provider (NSP)
An NSP provides customers with access to ASPs, the Internet and other services over a dedicated private network.
A logical group of data. A packet includes a header, which contains addressing and other control information, and the payload (user data). Data travelling through any network is broken up into packets.
(Point of Presence) PoP
A PoP (Point-of-Presence) is the location of an access point to the Internet. A PoP necessarily has a unique Internet (IP) address. Your Internet Service Provider (ISP) has a point-of-presence on the Internet. A POP usually includes routers, digital/analog call aggregators, servers, and frequently frame relay or ATM switches.
(Point to Point Tunneling Protocol) PPTP
PPTP is a protocol (set of communication rules) that allows corporations to extend their own corporate network through private "tunnels" over the public Internet. Effectively, a corporation uses a Wide-Area Network (WAN) as a single large local area network. A company no longer needs to lease its own lines for wide-area communication but can securely use the public networks. This kind of interconnection is known as a virtual private network (VPN). PPTP is known as a Layer 2 VPN and provides per-session authentication and optional encryption of data (MPPE). PPTP is built into Microsoft's Dial-up Networking, which is included with Windows 95, 98, NT and 2000. It is the easiest and most common method of establishing a connection for casual VPN access.
A protocol is a set of communication rules the end points in a telecommunication connection use when they send signals back and forth. Protocols exist at several levels in a telecommunication connection. There are hardware telephone protocols. There are protocols between the end points in communicating programs within the same computer or at different locations. Both end points must recognize and observe the protocol.
A gateway that relays one Internet session to another.
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
Also know as Plain Old Telephone System, this refers to the world's collection of interconnected public telephone networks designed primarily for voice traffic.
RADIUS(Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service)
A client/server protocol and software that enables remote access servers to communicate with a central server to authenticate dial-in users and authorize their access to the requested system or service. RADIUS allows a company to maintain user profiles in a central database that all remote servers can share. It provides better security, allowing a company to set up a policy that can be applied at a single administered network point. Having a central service also means that it's easier to track usage for billing and for keeping network statistics. Created by Livingston (now owned by Lucent), RADIUS is a de facto industry standard used by Ascend and other network product companies and is a proposed IETF standard.
A broad term referring to the accessing of (usually) data from a remote location, usually by a single user.
A device that determines the next network point to which a data packet should be forwarded enroute toward its destination. The router is connected to at least two networks and determines which way to send each data packet based on its current understanding of the state of the networks it is connected to. Routers create or maintain a table of the available routes and use this information to determine the best route for a given data packet.
Secure Internet access is a feature set that is pre-installed into all ePipe units and is active by default. Secure Internet Access provides secure, scalable Internet access for an entire organization (scalable bandwidth is only available with units that allow more than one Internet connection).
Secure Remote Access is a feature set that is pre-installed into all ePipe units. SIA enables remote workers to access the head office network through the Internet from their PCs using Microsoft VPN adapter. PPTP is used to establish a secure link between the remote worker are the central office network. An activation key must be purchased from ePipe Pty Ltd to activate this feature.
Small to Medium Business (SMB)
Generally accepted term referring to businesses larger than the "small office-home office" (SOHO) and the larger corporations. One definition by the European Union defines an SME as a legally independent company with no more than 500 employees.
Subscriber Management System - a method used by service providers to manage the delivery of customer services (also Short Messaging Service for mobile phones).
Site to Site VPN is is a feature set that is pre-installed into all ePipe units. SSV provides an IPSec-based secure, scalable Virtual Private Network between two multiple remote sites (scalable bandwidth is only available with units that allow more than one Internet connection). An activation key must be purchased from ePipe Pty Ltd to activate this feature.
A dedicated point to point, high capacity digital service capable of transmitting data at speeds up to 1.544 Mbps. Offers 24 channels, each at 64 Kbps, allowing carriers to offer Fractional T1 - an arbitrary number of 64 Kbps channels at a commensurate cost.
A dedicated point to point, very high capacity digital service capable of transmitting data at speeds up to 45 Mbps. Comprised of 672 channels, each at 64 Kbps.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
TCP & IP are the protocols emerging from the design to make a network robust and automatically recover from any device or phone line failure. TCP/IP allows the construction of very large networks with little central management.
TCP is responsible for verifying the correct delivery of data from end to end, TCP supports IP by detecting errors or lost data, triggering retransmission until the data is correctly and completely received. TCP also reassembles the received data packets in their original sequence.
Virtual Private Network
A private communications network existing within a shared or public network platform (i.e. the Internet).
Wide Area Network (WAN)
WANs are networks that span the distance between buildings, cities and even countries. WANs are LANs connected together using wide area network services from telecommunications carriers and typically use technologies such as standard phone lines (called POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)), ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), Frame Relay, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) or other high speed services.